This could be reason enough to ensure work is done on both subspecies, as preserving extant genetic diversity is of crucial ecological importance.

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Vernacular names include "snot otter", [10] "lasagna lizard", [10] "devil dog", "mud-devil", "grampus", "Allegheny alligator", "mud dog", "water dog", and "leverian water newt". The subspecific name , bishopi , is in honor of American herpetologist Sherman C. Like most salamanders, it has short legs with four toes on the front legs and five on its back limbs, and its tail is keeled for propulsion.

The hellbender has working lungs, but gill slits are often retained, although only immature specimens have true gills; the hellbender absorbs oxygen from the water through capillaries of its side frills. Hellbenders reach sexual maturity at about five years of age, and may live 30 years in captivity.

The hellbender has a few characteristics that make it distinguishable from other native salamanders, including a gigantic, dorsoventrally flattened body with thick folds travelling down the sides, a single open gill slit on each side, and hind feet with five toes each. The genus Cryptobranchus has historically only been considered to contain one species, C.

They found three equally divergent genetic units within the genus: These three groups were shown to be isolated, and are considered to most likely be "diverging on different evolutionary paths". The subspecies or species, depending on the source C. Some hellbender populations—namely a few in Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee—have historically been noted to be quite abundant, but several man-made maladies have converged on the species such that it has seen a serious population decline throughout its range.

Hellbender populations were listed in as already extinct or endangered in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Maryland, decreasing in Arkansas and Kentucky, and generally threatened as a species throughout their range by various human activities and developments. This specialization likely contributed to the decline in their populations, as collectors could easily identify their specific habitats. Until then, they are easily confused with mudpuppies, and can be differentiated often only through toe number.

If a hellbender ends up in an area of slow-moving water, not enough of it will pass over its skin in a given time, making it difficult to garner enough oxygen to support necessary respiratory functions.

A below-favorable oxygen content can make life equally difficult. Hellbenders are preyed upon by diverse predators, including various fish and reptiles including both snakes and turtles. Cannibalism of eggs is also considered a common occurrence. Once a hellbender finds a favorable location, it generally does not stray too far from it—except occasionally for breeding and hunting—and will protect it from other hellbenders both in and out of the breeding season.

The species is at least somewhat nocturnal, with peak activity being reported by one source as occurring around "two hours after dark" and again at dawn although the dawn peak was recorded in the lab and could be misleading as a result.

One report, written by a commercial collector in the s, noted a trend of more crayfish predation in the summer during times of higher prey activity, whereas fish made up a larger part of the winter diet, when crayfish are less active. There seems to be a specific temperature range in which hellbenders feed, as well: Cannibalism—mainly on eggs—has been known to occur within hellbender populations.

One researcher claimed perhaps density is maintained, and density dependence in turn created, in part by intraspecific predation. The hellbenders' breeding season begins in late August or early- to mid-September and can continue as late as the end of November, depending on region.

They exhibit no sexual dimorphism , except during the fall mating season, when males have a bulging ring around their cloacal glands. Unlike most salamanders, the hellbender performs external fertilization. Before mating, each male excavates a brood site, a saucer-shaped depression under a rock or log, with its entrance positioned out of the direct current, usually pointing downstream. The male remains in the brood site awaiting a female. When a female approaches, the male guides or drives her into his burrow and prevents her from leaving until she oviposits.

As the female lays eggs, the male positions himself alongside or slightly above them, spraying the eggs with sperm while swaying his tail and moving his hind limbs, which disperses the sperm uniformly. The male often tempts other females to lay eggs in his nest, and as many as 1, [22] eggs have been counted in a single nest. The current arms are based on seals from the 16th and 17th centuries.

They have been borne since 17 July Each year in May, a culinary walking tour is held for fruit, asparagus and wine with 16 sampling stops offering homemade treats amidst the blossoming fruit groves and vineyards. At the Erpolzheimer Martinsmarkt market in November, artists display their works in the open courtyards. Erpolzheim lies on the single-track Neustadt an der Weinstrasse - Bad Dürkheim - Freinsheim — Grünstadt railway line and it has a stop with a lovely railway station building, although it is not used as such, but rather as a house.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz in German. Um sind die Bewohner von Muottelsteten als Hersteller von Gebrauchsgegenständen aus Eisen belegt.

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