The origin of F. O. B. and C. I. F. terms and the factors influencing their choice

 


EXW - ExWorks and This term represents the seller's minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer.

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As for the F. As the shape-shifting nature of such a term can cause confusion especially if and when it overlaps with the terms of a CIF contract , it is useful that Part III of the book covers it in detail, supported by numerous references to cases.

We found it useful that Part I of the book discusses the basics of CIF and FOB prior to dealing with the specifics, including the issues inherent in non-performance, for example, frustration and force majeure and remedies. The book concludes with a discussion of such matters as jurisdiction and conflict of laws.

With its detailed table of contents, twenty-page index, copious footnoting, numbered paragraphs throughout and fifty pages of tables of cases, statutes and statutory instruments, this long-established and authoritative work of reference is, thankfully, easy to navigate.

Commercial lawyers and certainly shipping lawyers, as well as academics, will welcome this new up-to-date edition of Sassoon as an essential acquisition for the well-stocked shipping law library. The publication date is cited as at Gehen Sie zu Amazon.

This term may be used for any mode of transportation. This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. The buyer bears all costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal. To be used when delivering to a land frontier. Seller delivers when goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship, not cleared for import at the named port of destination.

This term can only be used when the goods are to be delivered by sea. This terms is the same as DES with the exception that the seller is responsible to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer, not cleared for import, on the quay wharf at the named port of destination.

This term can only be used in sea transport. This term means the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from arriving means of transport at the named place of destination.

This term represents maximum obligation to the seller. This term should not be used if the seller is unable to directly or indirectly to obtain the import license.

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EXW - ExWorks and This term represents the seller's minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer. FCA - Free Carrier and This term means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place.

FAS - Free Alongside Ship and This term means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. FOB - Free On Board and This term means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. CFR - Cost and Freight and This term means the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. CIF - Cost, Insurance, Freight and The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

CIP - Carriage and Insurance Paid and This term is the same as CPT with the exception that the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage.

CPT - Carriage Paid To and This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination.