Perhaps to fulfill a promise to his father or simply because he saw himself as "dedicated to the liberal arts," on 10 February Handel matriculated at the University of Halle.
What's the difference?
During six weeks he took long hot baths, and ended up playing the organ for a surprised audience. Deidamia , his last opera, a co-production with the Earl of Holderness ,  was performed three times in Handel gave up the opera business, while he enjoyed more success with his English oratorios.
Il trionfo del tempo e del disinganno , an allegory , Handel's first oratorio  was composed in Italy in , followed by La resurrezione in which uses material from the Bible. The circumstances of Esther and its first performance, possibly in , are obscure.
Next came Deborah , strongly coloured by the coronation anthems  and Athaliah , his first English Oratorio. It is evident how much he learned from Arcangelo Corelli about writing for instruments, and from Alessandro Scarlatti about writing for the solo voice; but there is no single composer who taught him how to write for chorus.
The most significant reason for this change was the dwindling financial returns from his operas. The performances were given without costumes and action; the singers appeared in their own clothes. In Handel produced Alexander's Feast. John Beard appeared for the first time as one of Handel's principal singers and became Handel's permanent tenor soloist for the rest of Handel's life.
In Saul , Handel was collaborating with Charles Jennens and experimenting with three trombones, a carillon and extra-large military kettledrums from the Tower of London , to be sure " In his next works Handel changed his course. In these works he laid greater stress on the effects of orchestra and soloists; the chorus retired into the background. During the summer of , The 3rd Duke of Devonshire invited Handel to Dublin , capital of the Kingdom of Ireland , to give concerts for the benefit of local hospitals.
In Handel wrote his oratorio Alexander Balus. He strikes the golden lyre , Handel wrote the accompaniment for mandolin , harp , violin , viola , and violoncello. The use of English soloists reached its height at the first performance of Samson. The work is highly theatrical. The role of the chorus became increasingly important in his later oratorios. Jephtha was first performed on 26 February ; even though it was his last oratorio, it was no less a masterpiece than his earlier works.
In Handel composed Music for the Royal Fireworks ; 12, people attended the first performance. The performance was considered a great success and was followed by annual concerts that continued throughout his life.
In recognition of his patronage, Handel was made a governor of the Hospital the day after his initial concert. He bequeathed a copy of Messiah to the institution upon his death. In addition to the Foundling Hospital, Handel also gave to a charity that assisted impoverished musicians and their families.
In August , on a journey back from Germany to London, Handel was seriously injured in a carriage accident between The Hague and Haarlem in the Netherlands. The cause was a cataract which was operated on by the great charlatan Chevalier Taylor. This did not improve his eyesight, but possibly made it worse. He died in at home in Brook Street, at age The last performance he attended was of Messiah. Handel was buried in Westminster Abbey. Handel never married, and kept his personal life private.
His initial will bequeathed the bulk of his estate to his niece Johanna, however four codicils distributed much of his estate to other relations, servants, friends and charities. Handel owned an art collection that was auctioned posthumously in Handel's compositions include 42 operas, 29 oratorios, more than cantatas, trios and duets, numerous arias, chamber music, a large number of ecumenical pieces, odes and serenatas, and 16 organ concerti. His most famous work, the oratorio Messiah with its "Hallelujah" chorus, is among the most popular works in choral music and has become the centrepiece of the Christmas season.
The Lobkowicz Palace in Prague holds Mozart's copy of Messiah , complete with handwritten annotations. Among the works with opus numbers published and popularised in his lifetime are the Organ Concertos Op. Also notable are his sixteen keyboard suites, especially The Harmonious Blacksmith.
Handel introduced previously uncommon musical instruments in his works: Cecilia's Day , three trombones Saul , clarinets or small high cornetts Tamerlano , theorbo , French horn Water Music , lyrichord, double bassoon , viola da gamba , carillon bell chimes , positive organ , and harp Giulio Cesare , Alexander's Feast. The first published catalogue of Handel's works appeared as an appendix to Mainwaring's Memoirs. The volume Händel-Gesellschaft "Handel Society" edition was published between and — mainly due to the efforts of Friedrich Chrysander.
For modern performance, the realisation of the basso continuo reflects 19th century practice. Vocal scores drawn from the edition were published by Novello in London, but some scores, such as the vocal score to Samson , are incomplete.
It did not start as a critical edition, but after heavy criticism of the first volumes, which were performing editions without a critical apparatus for example, the opera Serse was published with the title character recast as a tenor, reflecting pre-war German practice , it repositioned itself as a critical edition.
Influenced in part by cold-war realities, editorial work was inconsistent: In a committee was formed to establish better standards for the edition. The unification of Germany in removed communication problems, and the volumes issued have since shown a significant improvement in standards.
The catalogue has achieved wide acceptance and is used as the modern numbering system, with each of Handel's works designated an "HWV" number, for example Messiah is catalogued as "HWV 56". Handel's works were collected and preserved by two men: Sir Samuel Hellier , a country squire whose musical acquisitions form the nucleus of the Shaw-Hellier Collection,  and the abolitionist Granville Sharp. Handel — The Conquering Hero. The oratorios continued to be performed but not long after Handel's death they were thought to need some modernisation, and Mozart orchestrated German versions of Messiah and other works.
Throughout the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, particularly in the Anglophone countries, his reputation rested primarily on his English oratorios, which were customarily performed by choruses of amateur singers on solemn occasions.
The centenary of his death, in , was celebrated by a performance of Messiah at The Crystal Palace , involving 2, singers and instrumentalists, who played for an audience of about 10, people. Recent decades have revived his secular cantatas and what one might call 'secular oratorios' or 'concert operas'. Of the former, Ode for St. For his secular oratorios, Handel turned to classical mythology for subjects, producing such works as Acis and Galatea , Hercules and Semele These works have a close kinship with the sacred oratorios, particularly in the vocal writing for the English-language texts.
They also share the lyrical and dramatic qualities of Handel's Italian operas. As such, they are sometimes fully staged as operas. With the rediscovery of his theatrical works, Handel, in addition to his renown as instrumentalist, orchestral writer, and melodist, is now perceived as being one of opera's great musical dramatists.
The original form of his name, Georg Friedrich Händel, is generally used in Germany and elsewhere, but he is known as "Haendel" in France. A different composer, Jacob Handl or Händl — is usually known by the Latin form Jacobus Gallus that appears in his publications. Handel has generally been accorded high esteem by fellow composers, both in his own time and since.
When he chooses, he strikes like a thunder bolt. I would uncover my head and kneel before his tomb. Since , when William Crotch raised the issue in his Substance of Several Lectures on Music, scholars have extensively studied Handel's "borrowing" of music from other composers. Summarising the field in , Richard Taruskin wrote that Handel "seems to have been the champion of all parodists , adapting both his own works and those of other composers in unparalleled numbers and with unparalleled exactitude.
In an essay published in , John H. Roberts demonstrated that Handel's borrowings were unusually frequent even for his own era, enough to have been criticised by contemporaries notably Johann Mattheson ; Roberts suggested several reasons for Handel's practice, including Handel's attempts to make certain works sound more up-to-date and more radically, his "basic lack of facility in inventing original ideas" — though Roberts took care to argue that this does not "diminish Handel's stature", which should be "judged not by his methods, still less by his motives in employing them, but solely by the effects he achieves.
After Handel's death, many composers wrote works based on or inspired by his music. The first movement from Louis Spohr 's Symphony No. In Beethoven composed The Consecration of the House overture, which also bears the influence of Handel.
French composer and flautist Philippe Gaubert wrote his Petite marche for flute and piano based on the fourth movement of Handel's Trio Sonata, Op. In , Australian-born composer and pianist Percy Grainger based one of his most famous works on the final movement of Handel's Suite No.
He first wrote some variations on the theme, which he titled Variations on Handel's 'The Harmonious Blacksmith'. Then he used the first sixteen bars of his set of variations to create Handel in the Strand , one of his most beloved pieces, of which he made several versions for example, the piano solo version from Handel directed by Norman Walker and starring Wilfrid Lawson.
This, like its close relative, the barred eagle-owl , is one of the species that would have to be moved into Ketupa if that genus is to be retained, according to mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data Olsen et al. Unlike the " fish owls " that were also considered to be included in Ketupa , the barred and the spot-bellied species are not closely tied to riparian habitats and piscivorous eating habits. The spot-bellied eagle-owl is a large species of owl. The feet and talons as formidable as any eagle-owl, being very large, heavy and powerful for their size.
One bird from Sri Lanka had a middle talon of The spot-bellied eagle-owl is overall a stark, grayish brown bird, with dark, coarse brown coloration over the back and upper wings. The throat and underparts are mainly pale fulvous in color with black and white horizontal stripes along the flanks of the body that become broad spots on the abdomen and under tail coverts.
On the wings, the primaries are dark brown with lighter brown stripes and the secondaries are more heavily barred with buff-brown coloration.
The lores are covered in bristly feathers and the cheeks are brownish-white with black feather shafts. The large ear tufts slant off to the sides. Distinguishing the spot-bellied eagle-owl is relatively straightforward, since other Indian and southeast Asian eagle owls do not generally dwell in deep forests as does this species.
The spot-bellied is the largest of the owls in its range other than the tawny fish owl Bubo flavipes , which is restricted in both habitat and diet to mountain streams. The brown fish owl Bubo zeylonensis , which is quite different in colouring if seen reasonably well, is slightly smaller linearly than the spot-bellied eagle owl and is found in more wetland-based and often somewhat more degraded habitats.
The subspecies of Eurasian eagle-owl Bubo bubo hemachalana found in the Himalayas may inhabit higher elevations of the same mountains where the spot-bellied eagle-owl dwells in the lower elevations in the forested foothills but there their ranges barely abut. In both the barred and spot-bellied eagle-owls, they are immediately distinctive in the field from other eagle-owls by their pale-looking, sideways slanting ear-tufts, the degree of feathering on the legs and feet.
The species pair unlike sympatric eagle-owls has the horizontal rather than vertical underside markings which congeal somewhat in the barred to barring but appear as almost continuous spotting on the spot-bellied over a much paler ground colour while the back is slightly grayer looking, lacking any warmer brown or tawny tones. This owl is noted for its strange, human-sounding call, and it has been suggested that it is the same as the cryptid known as ulama or " Devil Bird " in Sri Lanka.
This call consists of a scream, which rises and then falls in tone. The territorial call of the species, like that of most other eagle-owls , consists of low hoots with two-second intervals between hoo s. It is usual for forest-dwelling owls and many different kinds of birds to have an extensive and complex range of vocalizations since vision is more limited than in open or semi-open habitats.
This species is distributed the Lower Himalayas from Kumaon east to Burma , thence to central Laos and central Vietnam. They are found throughout the Indian subcontinent and peninsular Southeast Asia down into the southernmost limits of the range in Sri Lanka and to 12 degrees north in southern Thailand.
The spot-bellied eagle-owl dwells mainly in primary or older second growth forests. Potentially, they can come to inhabit nearly all varieties of land-based habitats but prefer those such as dense, evergreen forests or moist deciduous forests within its range, though can range secondarily into tropical valleys, terrai and shola in the lower hills of India.
Although often considered uncommon to somewhat rare, recent photographic evidence indicates that they are particularly widely found in different parts of India and may simply avoid detection, so long as appropriate wooded habitat remains.
The spot-bellied eagle-owl is nocturnal and often spends its day hidden in the dense foliage of large forest trees. However, they have been observed on the move and even hunting during the day, especially in forests with minimal human disturbance.
He became organist at the Protestant Cathedral in Halle. The next year he moved to Hamburg where he got a job as violinist and harpsichordist in the orchestra of the opera-house. Here his first two operas , Almira and Nero , were produced early in Two other early operas, Daphne and Florindo , were produced at Hamburg in Handel was becoming a good opera composer, but he wanted to learn more, so he went to Italy in He spent four years there.
His opera Rodrigo was produced in Florence in , and his Agrippina at Venice in Agrippina was very popular and had 26 performances. It made Handel famous. He also had three oratorios produced in Rome. He wrote sacred music church music and other pieces in an operatic style, e. The Elector agreed that Handel could have an immediate leave of 12 months so that he could go to London. He visited London for eight months. His opera Rinaldo was performed in It was the first time an Italian opera had been performed in England.
It was an immediate success. Handel returned to Hanover in the summer of and spent a year writing chamber and orchestral music because there was no opera in Hanover. He was also trying to learn English. In the Elector allowed him to make another visit to England. In England he had patrons rich people who gave him money. He was having a lot of success, and so stayed in England instead of returning to his job in the Hanover Court. Handel might have been in trouble for staying in Britain.
According to one story the King forgave Handel because he wrote some lovely music called Water Music which was performed on a boat on the Thames at a royal water party. This story about the king forgiving Handel is probably not true. George would have known that Queen Anne was about to die and he would become King of Great Britain and therefore Handel's master again. In Handel moved into a newly built house in 25 Brook Street, London, which he rented until his death in , 35 years later.
The house is now called Handel House Museum  and is open to the public. It was here that Handel composed some of his most famous music such as Messiah , Zadok the Priest , and Fireworks Music.
In Handel's opera Scipio Scipio was performed for the first time. The march from this work is now the regimental slow march of the British Grenadier Guards.