Steve Jobs


The Journey is the Reward Retrieved July 12, I'll give you five bucks if you finish it. Retrieved October 6, Archived from the original on June 28,


Jobs was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in He died of respiratory arrest related to the tumor at age 56 on October 5, His biological father, Abdulfattah "John" al- Jandali Arabic: But there are a lot of Arabs in Michigan and Wisconsin. So it's not that unusual. They were engaged ten days later and married in From the documentary, Steve Jobs: Schieble became pregnant with Jobs in when she and Jandali spent the summer with his family in Homs , Syria. Jandali has stated that he "was very much in love with Joanne And so she told me she wanted to give the baby up for adoption.

Schieble gave birth to Jobs on February 24, , in San Francisco and chose an adoptive couple for him that was "Catholic, well-educated, and wealthy. I was scared they were going to take him away from me. Even after we won the case, Steve was so difficult a child that by the time he was two I felt we had made a mistake. I wanted to return him. That's not harsh, it's just the way it was, a sperm bank thing, nothing more. Jobs are, as they raised him. And I don't want to take their place.

If we needed a cabinet, he would build it. When he built our fence, he gave me a hammer so I could work with him I wasn't that into fixing cars Jobs had difficulty functioning in a traditional classroom, tended to resist authority figures, frequently misbehaved and was suspended a few times.

Jobs would later credit his fourth grade teacher, Imogene 'Teddy' Hill, with turning him around: She bribed me into learning. She would say, 'I really want you to finish this workbook.

I'll give you five bucks if you finish it. I learned more that year than I think I learned in any other year in school. They wanted me to skip the next two years in grade school and go straight to junior high to learn a foreign language but my parents very wisely wouldn't let it happen. Though the Jobs family was not well off, they used all their savings in to buy a new home, which would allow Jobs to change schools. When he was 13 in , Jobs was given a summer job by Bill Hewlett of Hewlett-Packard after Jobs cold-called him to ask for parts for an electronics project: I was putting in screws.

It didn't matter; I was in heaven. Bill Fernandez , a fellow electronics hobbyist who was in Jobs's grade at Cupertino Junior High, was his first friend after the move. Fernandez later commented that "for some reason the kids in the eighth grade didn't like [Jobs] because they thought he was odd.

I was one of his few friends. He also had no interest in sports and would later say that he didn't have what it took to "be a jock. I was always a loner. He underwent a change during mid I read Moby Dick and went back as a junior taking creative writing classes. I loved King Lear The teacher was this guy who looked like Ernest Hemingway. He took a bunch of us snowshoeing in Yosemite. In after Wozniak began attending University of California, Berkeley , Jobs would visit him there a few times a week.

This experience led him to study in nearby Stanford University 's student union. Jobs also decided that rather than join the electronics club, he would put on light shows with a friend for Homestead's avant-garde Jazz program. He was described by a Homestead classmate as "kind of a brain and kind of a hippie He was smart enough to be a nerd, but wasn't nerdy. And he was too intellectual for the hippies, who just wanted to get wasted all the time.

He was kind of an outsider. In high school everything revolved around what group you were in. He was an individual, in a world where individuality was suspect.

Reed was an expensive school that Paul and Clara could ill afford, and they were spending much of their life savings on their son's higher education.

She also met his friend at Reed, Daniel Kottke , for the first time. Brennan was now a senior at Homestead, and she did not have plans to attend college. She was supportive of Jobs when he told her that he planned to drop out of Reed because he did not want to spend his parents' money on it neither her father nor Jobs's adoptive parents had gone to college.

Jobs continued to attend by auditing his classes, which included a course on calligraphy that was taught by Robert Palladino. Jobs was no longer an official student, and Brennan stopped visiting him. Jobs later asked her to come and live with him in a house he rented near the Reed campus, but she refused. He had started seeing other women, and she was interested in someone she met in her art class. Brennan speculated that the house was Jobs's attempt to make their relationship monogamous again.

In that same speech, Jobs said: Brennan states by this point that their "relationship was complicated. I couldn't break the connection and I couldn't commit. At the same time, Brennan notes, "little by little, Steve and I separated. But we were never able to fully let go. We never talked about breaking up or going our separate ways and we didn't have that conversation where one person says it's over.

They remained involved with each other while continuing to see other people. After finishing it, Wozniak gave the board to Jobs, who then took the game down to Atari, Inc. Atari thought that Jobs had built it and gave him a job as a technician. By early , Jobs was living what Brennan describes as a "simple life" in a Los Gatos cabin, working at Atari , and saving money for his impending trip to India.

Brennan visited him twice at the cabin. She states in her memoir that her memories of this cabin consist of Jobs reading Be Here Now and giving her a copy , listening to South Indian music, and using a Japanese meditation pillow. Brennan felt that he was more distant and negative toward her. She initially refused to accept it but eventually accepted the money. Jobs traveled to India in mid [20] to visit Neem Karoli Baba [21] at his Kainchi ashram with his Reed friend and eventual Apple employee Daniel Kottke , in search of spiritual enlightenment.

Brennan joined him there for a period. Jobs was living with his parents again, in their backyard toolshed which he had converted into a bedroom with a sleeping bag, mat, books, a candle, and a meditation pillow. Jobs then returned to Atari and was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcade video game Breakout. Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips.

Much to the amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniak reduced the TTL count to 46, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. Wozniak had designed a low-cost digital " blue box " to generate the necessary tones to manipulate the telephone network, allowing free long-distance calls.

Jobs decided that they could make money selling it. The clandestine sales of the illegal "blue boxes" went well and perhaps planted the seed in Jobs's mind that electronics could be both fun and profitable. He states it showed them that they could take on large companies and beat them. Jobs and Wozniak attended meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club in , which was a stepping stone to the development and marketing of the first Apple computer. In , Wozniak designed and developed the Apple I computer and showed it to Jobs, who suggested that they sell it.

He had a circuit board with a chip on it, a DuMont TV set, a Panasonic cassette tape deck and a keyboard. He said, 'This is an Apple computer. Woz would show up once a week with his latest code. Steve Jobs didn't get his hands dirty in that sense. They received funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product marketing manager and engineer Mike Markkula. The Journey is the Reward After she returned from her own journey to India, Brennan visited Jobs at his parents' home, where he was still living.

It was during this period that Jobs and Brennan fell in love again, as Brennan noted changes in him that she attributes to Kobun whom she was also still following. It was also at this time that Jobs displayed a prototype Apple computer for Brennan and his parents in their living room. Brennan notes a shift in this time period, where the two main influences on Jobs were Apple and Kobun.

By the early , she and Jobs would spend time together at her home at Duveneck Ranch in Los Altos , which served as a hostel and environmental education center. Brennan also worked there as a teacher for inner city children who came to learn about the farm.

It was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer and was one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products in the world, [41] designed primarily by Steve Wozniak. Jobs usually went to work wearing a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by Issey Miyake it was sometimes reported as St.

Croix brand , Levi's blue jeans, and New Balance sneakers. Jobs told his biographer Walter Isaacson " As Jobs became more successful with his new company, his relationship with Brennan grew more complex. In , the success of Apple was now a part of their relationship, and Brennan, Daniel Kottke , and Jobs moved into a house near the Apple office in Cupertino. In October , Brennan was approached by Rod Holt , who asked her to take "a paid apprenticeship designing blueprints for the Apples.

Holt was particularly eager that she take the position and puzzled by her ambivalence toward it. Brennan's decision, however, was overshadowed by the fact that she realized she was pregnant and that Jobs was the father.

It took her a few days to tell Jobs, whose face, according to Brennan "turned ugly" at the news. At the same time, according to Brennan, at the beginning of her third trimester, Jobs said to her: I just didn't want to do that.

She was estranged from her mother and afraid to discuss the matter with her father. She also did not feel comfortable with the idea of having an abortion. She chose instead to discuss the matter with Kobun, who encouraged her to have and keep the baby, and pledged his support. Meanwhile, Holt was waiting for her decision on the internship.

Brennan stated that Jobs continued to encourage her to take the internship, stating she could "be pregnant and work at Apple, you can take the job. I don't get what the problem is.

I could not have endured it. Brennan turned down the internship and decided to leave Apple. She stated that Jobs told her "If you give up this baby for adoption, you will be sorry" and "I am never going to help you. She would sometimes ask Jobs for money but he always refused. Brennan hid her pregnancy for as long as she could, living in a variety of homes and continuing her work with Zen meditation.

At the same time, according to Brennan, Jobs "started to seed people with the notion that I slept around and he was infertile, which meant that this could not be his child.

Jobs went there for the birth after he was contacted by Robert Friedland , their mutual friend and the farm owner. While distant, Jobs worked with her on a name for the baby, which they discussed while sitting in the fields on a blanket.

Brennan suggested the name "Lisa" which Jobs also liked and notes that Jobs was very attached to the name "Lisa" while he "was also publicly denying paternity. She also stated that she never gave him permission to use the baby's name for a computer and he hid the plans from her. Jobs also worked with his team to come up with the phrase, "Local Integrated Software Architecture" as an alternative explanation for the Apple Lisa. Brennan worked as a waitress in Palo Alto.

Later, Brennan agreed to give an interview with Michael Moritz for Time magazine for its Time Person of the Year special, released on January 3, , in which she discussed her relationship with Jobs.

Rather than name Jobs the Person of the Year, the magazine named the computer the "Machine of the Year". In , Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, "Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world? In , Jobs bought an apartment in the two top floors of The San Remo , a Manhattan building with a politically progressive reputation.

Although he never lived there, [51] he spent years renovating it with the help of I. In , he sold it to U2 singer Bono. In , Jobs bought the Jackling House and estate, and resided there for a decade. After that, he leased it out for several years until when he stopped maintaining the house, allowing exposure to the weather to degrade it.

In , Jobs received permission from the town of Woodside to demolish the house in order to build a smaller contemporary styled one. After a few years in court, the house was finally demolished in , a few months before he died.

Despite the fanfare, the expensive Macintosh was a hard sell. Microsoft was developing its graphical user interface Although the Macintosh preceded the clones, it was far more expensive, so "through the late s, the Windows user interface was getting better and better and was thus taking increasingly more share from Apple.

Sculley's and Jobs's respective visions for the company greatly differed. The former favored open architecture computers like the Apple II, sold to education, small business, and home markets less vulnerable to IBM. President and CEO Sculley had little control over chairman of the board Jobs's Macintosh division; it and the Apple II division operated like separate companies, duplicating services.

Many left including Wozniak, who stated that the company had "been going in the wrong direction for the last five years" and sold most of his stock. In May , Sculley—encouraged by Arthur Rock—decided to reorganize Apple, and proposed a plan to the board that would remove Jobs from the Macintosh group and put him in charge of "New Product Development.

However, Jobs was confronted after the plan was leaked, and he said that he would leave Apple. The Board declined his resignation and asked him to reconsider. Sculley also told Jobs that he had all of the votes needed to go ahead with the reorganization.

A few months later, on September 17, , Jobs submitted a letter of resignation to the Apple Board. A year later he was running out of money, and he sought venture capital with no product on the horizon. Eventually, Jobs attracted the attention of billionaire Ross Perot , who invested heavily in the company. Steve Wozniak said in a interview that while Jobs was at NeXT he was "really getting his head together".

Like the Apple Lisa , the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced and designed for the education sector, but was largely dismissed as cost-prohibitive for educational institutions. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the financial, scientific, and academic community, highlighting its innovative, experimental new technologies, such as the Mach kernel , the digital signal processor chip, and the built-in Ethernet port.

The revised, second generation NeXTcube was released in Jobs touted it as the first "interpersonal" computer that would replace the personal computer. With its innovative NeXTMail multimedia email system, NeXTcube could share voice, image, graphics, and video in email for the first time. The first film produced by Pixar with its Disney partnership, Toy Story , with Jobs credited as executive producer, [72] brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released.

In and , as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out, Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership, [74] and in early , Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films after its contract with Disney expired. When the deal closed, Jobs became The Walt Disney Company 's largest single shareholder with approximately seven percent of the company's stock.

Jobs Trust led by Laurene Jobs. Floyd Norman , of Pixar, described Jobs as a "mature, mellow individual" who never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers. Catmull released the book Creativity, Inc. Regarding his own manner of dealing with Jobs, Catmull writes: In all the 26 years with Steve, Steve and I never had one of these loud verbal arguments and it's not my nature to do that.

I would say something to him and he would immediately shoot it down because he could think faster than I could. I would then wait a week I'd call him up and I give my counter argument to what he had said and he'd immediately shoot it down. So I had to wait another week, and sometimes this went on for months. But in the end one of three things happened. About a third of the time he said, 'Oh, I get it, you're right. And it was another third of the time in which [I'd] say, 'Actually I think he is right.

Chrisann Brennan notes that after Jobs was forced out of Apple, "he apologized many times over for his behavior" towards her and Lisa. She also states that Jobs "said that he never took responsibility when he should have, and that he was sorry. Jobs did not contact his birth family during his adoptive mother Clara's lifetime, however.

He would later tell his official biographer Walter Isaacson: He began to spend a great deal of time with her and learned more details about her background and his adoption, information that motivated him to find his biological mother. Jobs found on his birth certificate the name of the San Francisco doctor to whom Schieble had turned when she was pregnant. Although the doctor did not help Jobs while he was alive, he left a letter for Jobs to be opened upon his death.

As he died soon afterwards, Jobs was given the letter which stated that "his mother had been an unmarried graduate student from Wisconsin named Joanne Schieble. Jobs only contacted Schieble after Clara died and after he received permission from his father, Paul. In addition, out of respect for Paul, he asked the media not to report on his search. She was twenty-three and she went through a lot to have me. She said that she regretted giving him up and repeatedly apologized to him for it.

Jobs and Schieble would develop a friendly relationship throughout the rest of his life and would spend Christmas together. During this first visit, Schieble told Jobs that he had a sister, Mona, who was not aware that she had a brother. Her first impression of Jobs was that "he was totally straightforward and lovely, just a normal and sweet guy.

As we got to know each other, we became really good friends, and she is my family. I don't know what I'd do without her. I can't imagine a better sister. My adopted sister, Patty, and I were never close. Jobs then learned his family history. Six months after he was given up for adoption, Schieble's father died, she wed Jandali, and they had a daughter, Mona. I also bear the responsibility for being away from my daughter when she was four years old, as her mother divorced me when I went to Syria, but we got back in touch after 10 years.

We lost touch again when her mother moved and I didn't know where she was, but since 10 years ago we've been in constant contact, and I see her three times a year. I organized a trip for her last year to visit Syria and Lebanon and she went with a relative from Florida. A few years later, Schieble married an ice skating teacher, George Simpson. Mona Jandali took her stepfather's last name and thus became Mona Simpson. In , after they divorced, Schieble took Mona to Los Angeles and raised her on her own.

Jobs told his official biographer that after meeting Simpson, he wanted to become involved in her ongoing search for their father. When he was found working in Sacramento, they decided that only Simpson would meet him. Jandali and Simpson spoke for several hours at which point he told her that he had left teaching for the restaurant business. He also said that he and Schieble had given another child away for adoption but that "we'll never see that baby again.

I had been to that restaurant a few times, and I remember meeting the owner. I asked Mona not to tell him about me. He then contacted Simpson and asked "what is this thing about Steve Jobs? He never contacted Steve. In , Jobs first met his future wife, Laurene Powell , when he gave a lecture at the Stanford Graduate School of Business , where she was a student. Soon after the event, he stated that Laurene "was right there in the front row in the lecture hall, and I couldn't take my eyes off of her From that point forward, they were together, with a few minor exceptions, for the rest of his life.

After she received her BA from the University of Pennsylvania , she spent a short period in high finance but found it didn't interest her, so she decided to pursue her MBA at Stanford instead. In addition, unlike Jobs, she was athletic and followed professional sports.

She also brought as much self-sufficiency to the relationship as he did and was more of a private than public person. The ceremony was conducted by Jobs's guru , Kobun Chino Otogawa. The vegan wedding cake was in the shape of Yosemite's Half Dome , and the wedding ended with a hike during which Laurene's brothers had a snowball fight. Jobs is reported to have said to Mona: Jobs's and Powell's first child, Reed, was born September Jobs and Powell had two more children, Erin, born in August , and Eve, born in I don't remember seeing him.

I was busy being terrified. The deal was finalized in February , [86] bringing Jobs back to the company he had cofounded. He was formally named interim chief executive in September. In the coming months, many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator, "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened.

The reality was that Jobs's summary executions were rare, but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company. Under Jobs's guidance, the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products; since then, appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple.

The company subsequently branched out, introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store , the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. On June 29, , Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone , a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene.

While nurturing innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship [deliver product]. Team, it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Based on today's stock market close, Apple is worth more than Dell. Stocks go up and down, and things may be different tomorrow, but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today. Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the " reality distortion field " and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches colloquially known as " Stevenotes " at Macworld Expos and at Apple Worldwide Developers Conferences.

Jobs was a board member at Gap Inc. In , Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7. As a result, Jobs potentially faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. The case was the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations, [97] though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29, found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in In , Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the US by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's annual meeting in Cupertino in April.

A few weeks later, Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker.

The banner read "Steve, don't be a mini-player—recycle all e-waste. In , he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any US customer who buys a new Mac. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems.

Jobs was perceived as a demanding perfectionist [] [] who always aspired to position his businesses and their products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting innovation and style trends. He summed up this self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January , by quoting ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky:.

There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. Since the very, very beginning. And we always will. In a interview with biographer Walter Isaacson, Jobs revealed that he had met with US President Barack Obama , complained about the nation's shortage of software engineers, and told Obama that he was "headed for a one-term presidency".

After the meeting, Jobs commented, "The president is very smart, but he kept explaining to us reasons why things can't get done. In October , Jobs was diagnosed with cancer.

In mid, he announced to his employees that he had a cancerous tumor in his pancreas. Despite his diagnosis, Jobs resisted his doctors' recommendations for medical intervention for nine months, [] instead relying on alternative medicine to thwart the disease.

According to Harvard researcher Ramzi Amri, his choice of alternative treatment "led to an unnecessarily early death". Other doctors agree that Jobs's diet was insufficient to address his disease. Cancer researcher and alternative medicine critic David Gorski , for instance, said, "My best guess was that Jobs probably only modestly decreased his chances of survival, if that.

Cassileth , the chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 's integrative medicine department, [] said, "Jobs's faith in alternative medicine likely cost him his life He had the only kind of pancreatic cancer that is treatable and curable He essentially committed suicide. He was also influenced by a doctor who ran a clinic that advised juice fasts, bowel cleansings and other unproven approaches, before finally having surgery in July His "thin, almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery, [] [] together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters, inspired a flurry of media and Internet speculation about the state of his health.

Others said that shareholders had a right to know more, given Jobs's hands-on approach to running his company. On August 28, , Bloomberg mistakenly published a word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service, containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death.

News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's death. Although the error was promptly rectified, many news carriers and blogs reported on it, [] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs's health.

On December 16, , Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo , again reviving questions about Jobs's health. On January 14, , Jobs wrote in an internal Apple memo that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought".

In , Tim Cook offered a portion of his liver to Jobs, since both share a rare blood type. The donor liver can regenerate tissue after such an operation. Jobs yelled, "I'll never let you do that. I'll never do that.

On January 17, , a year and a half after Jobs returned to work following the liver transplant, Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees, stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health. On August 24, , Jobs announced his resignation as Apple's CEO, writing to the board, "I have always said if there ever came a day when I could no longer meet my duties and expectations as Apple's CEO, I would be the first to let you know.

Unfortunately, that day has come. PDT on October 5, , due to complications from a relapse of his previously treated islet-cell pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor , [35] [] [] which resulted in respiratory arrest. Before embarking, he'd looked at his sister Patty, then for a long time at his children, then at his life's partner, Laurene, and then over their shoulders past them.

Steve's final words were: Apple [] and Pixar each issued announcements of his death. Bob Iger ordered all Disney properties, including Walt Disney World and Disneyland , to fly their flags at half-staff from October 6 to 12, A video of the service was uploaded to Apple's website.

Those in attendance included Apple and other tech company executives, members of the media, celebrities, close friends of Jobs, and politicians, along with Jobs's family. The service was highly secured, with guards at all of the university's gates, and a helicopter flying overhead from an area news station.

The box contained a copy of the Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak , [] former owner of what would become Pixar , George Lucas , [] former rival, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates , [] and President Barack Obama [] all offered statements in response to his death. Lisa Brennan-Jobs, Steve Job's eldest daughter, described Jobs in her memoir as cruel and illustrated patterns of cruel behaviors during her adolescent years.

Jobs's design aesthetic was influenced by philosophies of Zen and Buddhism. In India, he experienced Buddhism while on his seven-month spiritual journey, [] and his sense of intuition was influenced by the spiritual people with whom he studied.

According to Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak "Steve didn't ever code. He wasn't an engineer and he didn't do any original design Steve Jobs was the marketing person. He is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in United States patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces including touch-based , speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards and packages.

Jobs's contributions to most of his patents were to "the look and feel of the product". His industrial design chief Jonathan Ive had his name along with him for of the patents. Involved in many projects throughout his career was his long-time marketing executive and confidant Joanna Hoffman , known as one of the few employees at Apple and NeXT who could successfully stand up to Jobs while also engaging with him.

Even while terminally ill in the hospital, Jobs sketched new devices that would hold the iPad in a hospital bed. Since his death, the former Apple CEO has won patents, more than most inventors win during their lifetimes. Currently, Jobs holds over patents. The Lisa is a personal computer designed by Apple during the early s. It was the first personal computer to offer a graphical user interface in a machine aimed at individual business users.

Development of the Lisa began in In , after Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project, [] he joined the Macintosh project. The Macintosh is not a direct descendant of Lisa, although there are obvious similarities between the systems.

Once he joined the original Macintosh team, Jobs took over the project after Wozniak had experienced a traumatic airplane accident and temporarily left the company. This was the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse.

Since , Apple has largely phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", though the product family has been nicknamed "Mac" or "the Mac" since the development of the first model. The ad alludes to George Orwell 's novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four , which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised " Big Brother.

The Macintosh, however, was expensive, which hindered its ability to be competitive in a market already dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.

After Jobs was forced out of Apple in , he started a company that built workstation computers. The NeXT Computer was introduced in at a lavish launch event.

Apple iMac was introduced in and its innovative design was directly the result of Jobs's return to Apple. Apple boasted "the back of our computer looks better than the front of anyone else's. Da Skelette von T. Auch könnten die Unterschiede mit dem Alter zusammen hängen, wobei robuste Individuen ältere Tiere dargestellt haben könnten.

Lediglich ein einziges T. Dieses Gewebe fehlt bei männlichen Vögeln, obwohl sie es produzieren können, wenn ihnen Sexualhormone wie Estrogen verabreicht werden. Dies ist ein weiterer Hinweis auf die enge Verwandtschaft zwischen Vögeln und Dinosauriern.

Wie viele zweibeinig laufende bipede Dinosaurier wurde auch Tyrannosaurus rex in der Vergangenheit oft in aufrechter Haltung dargestellt, wobei der Schwanz wie ein drittes Bein auf dem Boden auflag und die Körperachse von der vertikalen Lage aus um 45 Grad oder weniger geneigt war, ähnlich wie bei einem Känguru. Das Skelett stand in dieser aufrechten Position für beinahe ein Jahrhundert, bis es im Jahr demontiert wurde. Moderne Darstellungen zeigen T. Anfangs war von den Armen lediglich der Oberarmknochen bekannt, [57] weshalb Osborn für das erste montierte, ab ausgestellte Tyrannosaurus -Skelett längere, dreifingrige Arme modellierte, die denen von Allosaurus ähnelten.

Dies bemerkte bereits Osborn im Jahr , welcher spekulierte, die Arme könnten dem Festhalten des Partners während der Kopulation gedient haben. Diese Hypothese könnte von biomechanischen Studien unterstützt werden: Der Biceps brachii eines ausgewachsenen Tyrannosaurus rex konnte alleine ca. Die Schulter- und Ellenbogengelenke erlaubten jedoch nur Bewegungen von 40 bis 45 Grad — im Kontrast dazu konnte Deinonychus seine Arme um 88 bis Grad bewegen, während sich ein menschlicher Arm an der Schulter um Grad und am Ellenbogengelenk um Grad bewegen kann.

Der schwere Bau der Armknochen, die extreme Stärke der Muskeln und die eingeschränkten Bewegungsmöglichkeiten weisen nach Ansicht einiger Forscher auf ein System hin, das für das Festhalten von Beutetieren ausgelegt war. Der Knochen musste für einen Transport zerbrochen werden und wurde dann nicht der üblichen Prozedur zur Erhaltung unterzogen, weil Schweitzer hoffte, ihn auf weiches Gewebe testen zu können.

Ob das Material durch einen unbekannten Prozess erhalten geblieben ist, der sich von der normalen Fossilisation unterscheidet, oder ob es sich um originales Material handelt, ist unbekannt. Dass weiches Gewebe nicht schon früher in den Knochen von Dinosauriern entdeckt wurde, könnte daran liegen, dass Forscher bis heute überliefertes weiches Gewebe für ausgeschlossen hielten und somit nicht danach suchten.

Seit diesem Fund wurden gewebeähnliche Strukturen bei zwei weiteren Tyrannosauriern und einem Hadrosaurier nachgewiesen. Überprüft wurde diese Methode anhand der Verwandtschaft von Mammut und Elefant.

Die Klasse der Urkiefervögel ist weitestgehend ausgestorben und hat nur in sechs Familien überlebt. Thomas Kaye und Kollegen bezweifeln diese Ergebnisse in einer erschienenen Veröffentlichung und meinen, es handle sich bei den vermeintlichen Geweberesten um bakterielle Biofilme.

Die Forscher fanden derartige Strukturen in weiteren Fossilien, unter anderem in einem Ammoniten an einem Ort, wo das gefundene Eisen nichts mit Blut zu tun gehabt haben konnte. Im Jahre wurde der frühe Tyrannosauroide Dilong paradoxus aus der berühmten Yixian-Formation von China beschrieben. Wie bei vielen anderen Theropoden dieser Formation sind auf dem Skelett von Dilong faserartige Strukturen sichtbar, die für gewöhnlich als die Vorläufer von Federn interpretiert werden.

Es gibt Vermutungen, dass auch Tyrannosaurus und andere Tyrannosauriden solche Protofedern gehabt haben könnten — seltene Hautabdrücke von erwachsenen Tyrannosauriden aus Kanada und der Mongolei zeigen jedoch Schuppen, wie sie für andere Dinosaurier typisch sind.

Mit seinen Mitarbeitern fand er bei Ausgrabungen einen abgebrochenen Tyrannosaurus -Zahn zwischen den Schwanzwirbeln des Hadrosauriers Edmontosaurus annectens. Da die Wirbel um den Zahn herum zusammengewachsen waren, ist seiner Meinung nach davon auszugehen, dass der T.

Diese Eigenschaft ist typisch für jagende Tiere. Der Fund eines gut erhaltenen Schädels erlaubte zudem eine Rekonstruktion des Tyrannosaurusgehirns. Andere Wissenschaftler widersprechen hingegen der Rolle des aktiven Jägers. Ihrer Meinung nach sei Tyrannosaurus ein Aasfresser gewesen, der sich von bereits verendeten Tieren ernährt hat. Er stützt sich dabei auf die Anatomie des Tyrannosaurus rex:. Die meisten rezenten karnivoren Säugetiere und Vögel sowie viele Schuppenkriechtiere fressen auch frische Kadaver oder nutzen Gelegenheiten, einem kleineren Beutegreifer die Beute abzujagen.

Ähnlich kontrovers diskutiert wie die Aasfressertheorie ist die Frage, ob Tyrannosaurus rex ein Einzelgänger oder ein Rudeltier war. Zu den Vertretern der Rudeltiertheorie zählt ebenfalls Jack Horner. Die Theorie wird vor allem auf Fundstellen gestützt, an denen die Überreste mehrerer Exemplare gefunden wurden.

Fossilien von Tyrannosaurus und anderen Tyrannosauriden zeigen oft Veränderungen an einer Seite oder beiden Seiten des Unterkiefers , glattrandige, erosive Läsionen , die sich durch die gesamte Dicke des Knochens ziehen. Untersuchungen an zehn Individuen mit vergleichbaren Läsionen veranlassten Wolff et al. Im fortgeschrittenen Stadium seien die krankhaften Veränderungen und die damit einhergehenden funktionellen Einschränkungen an Maul , Rachen und Speiseröhre so erheblich gewesen, dass sie sehr wahrscheinlich zum Tod durch Verhungern geführt haben.

Zähne, die heute Tyrannosaurus rex zugeschrieben werden, wurden bereits von A. Lakes nahe Golden in Colorado entdeckt. In den frühen er Jahren sammelte J. Fragmente der Wirbel, die Edward Drinker Cope im westlichen South Dakota fand und Manospondylus gigas nannte, wurden ebenfalls als Tyrannosaurus rex neu klassifiziert.

Barnum Brown entdeckte das erste teilweise Skelett eines Tyrannosaurus rex im Jahr im östlichen Wyoming. Während er das zweite, entdeckte Exemplar als Tyrannosaurus rex beschrieb, ordnete er das andere, entdeckte Skelett einer anderen neuen Art und Gattung zu, die er Dynamosaurus imperiosus nannte. Insgesamt entdeckte Brown fünf Teilskelette von Tyrannosaurus. Dieser Abdruck wurde entdeckt und identifiziert und dokumentiert. Ein in Montana gemachter Fund beinhaltete den bislang am vollständigsten erhaltenen Schädel.

Tyrannosaurier allgemein und die Art Tyrannosaurus rex im Besonderen gehören zu den weltweit populärsten Dinosauriern. Auf viele Menschen trifft wohl zu, dass Tyrannosaurus rex der einzige Saurier ist, dessen vollständigen wissenschaftlichen Namen sie kennen. Daran konnten bisher auch die neueren Theorien und Erkenntnisse über das mögliche Leben als Aasfresser nicht viel ändern. Nachhaltig geprägt wurde das Image des Tyrannosaurus rex auch durch die tricktechnisch revolutionäre Darstellung im Film Jurassic Park Hier wurde er als enorm schnelle, übermächtige Kreatur charakterisiert, vor der die Menschen nur fliehen konnten.

Auch schufen die Sounddesigner des Films ein weithin bekanntes, charakteristisches Brüllen für das Tier. Griechisch-Deutsches Schul- und Handwörterbuch.

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